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2.3 The documentary genre and the digital media – Compared evolution stages

 

 1. ANALOGIC MEDIA

2. BIRTH OF PHOTOGRAPHY

3. BIRTH OF CINEMA

4. SILENT CINEMA

5. BIRTH OF SOUND CINEMA / BLACK AND WHITE TV

6. CONTEMPORARY CINEMA / BIRTH OF COLOUR TV

7. VHS VIDEO AND VIDEODISC

8. FIRST COMPUTERS

9. DIGITALIZATION AND THE INTERNET

10. NEW MEDIA

 

 

1. ANALOGIC MEDIA

3500-3000 B.C. The abacus invented in Babylon, it was the first “machine” for performing calculations

1558 Magiae Naturalis by Giovan Battista della Porta

1640 Magic lanterns by Athanasius Kirsch

1666 Colour Discs (Isaac Newton)

2. BIRTH OF PHOTOGRAPHY

1822 Charles Babbage presented his differential machine project for evaluating polynomials.

1824/9 December scientific communication at the Royal Society of London on “Persistence of Vision” (Peter Mark Roget)

1826 Image experiments. View from the window at Le Gras. First permanent photograph.

1830 Babbage introduces the basis of computing in the Analytical Engine project

1839 “Daguerreotype” (Louis Daguerre) Based on earlier work by Nicéphore Niepce

1874 “Photographic revolver” (Pierre Jules Cesar Janssen)

1877 “Phonograph” (Thomas Alba Edison)

1878/1879 Experiments with motion (Edweard Muybridge)

1879 Electricity (Thomas Alba Edison)

1885 Tabulating machine (Herman Hollerith)

1887 Photographic rifle (Etienne Jules Marey)

1888 Gramophone (Emile Berliner)

3. BIRTH OF CINEMA

1893 First film studio, called Black Maria (West Orange, New Jersey). Edwin S. Porter is the director

1894 Kinetoscope (Thomas Alba Edison and William KL Dickson)

(April 14) A commercial film is publicly exhibited for the first time (Holland Brothers, 115 Broadway Avenue, New York)

1895 Cinematograph (Auguste and Louis Lumière)

March – First exhibition of cinematography

July – Leon Gaumont creates French society production “Gaumont”

December 28 – The first public presentation at the Salon Indien du Grand Café Boulevard des Capucchines, Paris, “Workers Leaving the Factory”

1897 Société Pathé Frères (Brothers Charles, Emilie, Théophile and Jacques Pathé)

1898 Magnetophon tape (Vademar Poulsen)

4. SILENT CINEMA

1902 “Trip to the Moon” (Georges Méliès)

1911 Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, founded by Herman Hollerith

11 June 1922 – Presentation of the film that inaugurated the documentary, Nanook of the North (Robert Flaherty), at the New York Capitol

Kino Pravda (Kultkino) / Kinoki Group

Phonovision 1923 (John Logie Baird)

1924 T. J. Watson renames the company CTR as International Business Machines (IBM)

1926 Coining of the term “documentary” by John Grierson (about the film “Moana” by Robert Flaherty)

5. BIRTH OF SOUND CINEMA / BLACK AND WHITE TV

1927 “The Jazz Singer” (Alan Crosland)

“Berlin, Symphony of a great City” (Walter Ruttman)

1929 “Man of the movie camera” (Dziga Vertov)

Drifters (John Grierson)

1935 “Triumph of the Will” (Leni Riefenstahl)

1937 Beginnings of the computability theory with the description of the Turing machine

1938 Konrad Zuse builds the first of its computer series: the Z1

1939 NFB (National Film Board of Canada)

6. CONTEMPORARY CINEMA / BIRTH OF COLOUR TV

1940 Claude Shannon’s thesis on the mathematical theory of communication.

1945 Vannevar Bush publishes “As we may think”

1947 Birth of cybernetics (Norbert Wiener).

1948 The transistor is invented by John Bardeen and Walter Brattain (Bell Laboratories)

1950 The first interactive computer, the Whirlwind, is created in a project directed by Jay Forrester at MIT

7. VHS VIDEO AND VIDEODISC

First generation of electronic digital computers (1949-1958)

1955 “Night and Fog” (Alain Resnais)

1956 Free Cinema (London)

1958 Construction of the first integrated circuit or chip, Jack St. Clair Kilby

David Paul Gregg invents Laserdisc technology

Time Inc. (Robert Drew)

Second generation of electronic digital computers (1959-1964)

1960 Foundation of the Xanadu Project by Theodore Holm Nelson

1961 Term “Cinema Vérité” coined by Jean Rouch, Edgar Morin and Mario Ruspolli)

“Chronicle of a Summer” (Jean Rouch)

“La Jetée” (Chris Marker)

1962 Galactic Network concept by JCR Licklider

Philippe Dreyfus coins the term “computing”

The MIT student Steve Russell writes the first computer game: Spacewar!

Ivan Sutherland’s Sketchpad 1963

Third generation of electronic digital computers (1964 – 1971)

1965 The War Game (Peter Watkins)

1966 ELIZA program by Joseph Weizembaum

Most of the ideas and concepts based on networks are applied to ARPANET

Birth of structured programming

1967 Douglas C. Engelbart invents the mouse

Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore found Intel Corporation

1969 Beginning of the ARPANET project

1970 Creation of the first Graphical User Interface (GUI)

Fiber Optic Cable

Fourth generation of electronic digital computers (1970-1981)

1971 Production of the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004

1975 Bill Gates and Paul Allen found Microsoft

Altair 8800, considered the first personal computer

1976 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniac found Apple Computer, Inc.

First VHS VCR

1977 Apple II, the second personal computer in history

1978 First videodisc commercialization – Discovision (MCA)

8. FIRST COMPUTERS

1980 The “PC Era” begins (1980-1990)

1981 The IBM PC is marketed

Microsoft introduced the operating system MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System)

Laser DiscoVision

Sony creates 3.5-inch floppies

TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)

Apple II, the first computer to be sold on a large scale

1982 “Sans Soleil” (Chris Marker)

1983 First personal computer with a graphical interface, the Apple Lisa.

CD

Birth of the Internet as ARPANET, separate from the military network

1987 HyperCard system

1989 Roger & Me. A Humorous Look at How General Motors Destroyed Flint, Michigan (Michael Moore)

9. DIGITALIZATION AND THE INTERNET

1990 Web 1.0 (1990-2000)

Hypertext for creating the World Wide Web (www), rules of HTTP transmission protocol, language and concept of HTML, URL documents (Tim Berners-Lee)

1991 Linus Torvalds begin to develop Linux, a Unix-like operating system

1992 I’m Your Man (Bob Bejan)

1995 Mr. Payback: An Interactive Movie (Bob Gale)

1997 Inmemory (Chris Marker)

1998 Birth of Google Inc. (Larry Page and Sergey Brin)

Histoire (s) du cinéma (Jean Luc Godard)

10. NEW MEDIA

2000 Web 2.0 (2000-2010)

2000 – 2014 New Trends/Technologies

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